Hallucinogenic mushrooms have been used by pre-Columbian cultures for religious and spiritual reasons. The psychoactive effect of these mushrooms is due to the presence of alkaloids such as psilocybin and psilocin. These substances are present in numerous species of fungi that grow mainly in wood or manure, such as Psilocybe, Panaeolus and Conocybe. In the last decades, in different regions of the world, studies of the diversity of these groups have been carried out using genetic tools, which has led to the description of new species. Particularly in Uruguay, the study of the diversity of these groups has not been formally updated for 40 years, so there is no concrete knowledge of the quantity and identity of these species. Our group is focused on solving this question through the use of molecular tools and in the deepening of the characterization of the psychoactive alkaloid contents of each of the species found.